Sunday, February 25, 2018

Ah, Paris. Je t'aime!

Frankly, I have never fallen in love this deeply and crazily to a city. Have never been. But, I finally found my love to Paris is for real. I was enchanted by every inch of its architecture, the coldness of the Parisian, the musics, the wind that smoothly touches my skin, the sound of sandy path-walk at the city gardens, even the smell at the metro railway.

Last week, I revisit Paris, but only for 14 hours. Cray! tiring, yes. super cold, yes. But didn't fade my affection towards this city.

Here are some nice pics I managed to capture. Enjoy!












Sunday, November 26, 2017

So here is a story. A story that came to my dream. It is about a king and His people.

Once upon a time, a prosperous big kingdom. Lives a King and all his people. It is not about all of them. It is about her. A young lady who has fallen into despair. Lonely, hopeless, and sad young lady. In her early 20's. Not even beauty comes from her tired eyes. Not even glow comes from her skin. And not even cheer comes from her lips.

One day, She comes to her King. Asking for an eternal happiness. She comes with tears and offerings. "Your Majesty, would you grant me an eternal happiness? I am sad and often want to kill myself."
And the King answers "Young lady, it is surely not an impossible thing for me to do as what you wish for."
"Then, please help me." She replies and bows.
"Nothing you can doubt from me. But, there is no such happiness that lasts for ever. Happiness will blind you. It is dangerous. And therefore, you deserve sadness too."
"But, Your Majesty, I am sad all of my life. Why would you add it even more?"
"You might not remember. Blessed I give? Is it recallable?"
The young lady is stroke.
She goes back home. And thinks. "my King is right. He has opened up my eyes.... But I just need these loneliness, hopelessness, and sadnesses to be cured. I need it so bad.."

---

Saturday, November 25, 2017

It was the first time
that I appeared in grime.
Sleepless nights,
the works to fight.
My eyes were not set,
not even could see. Yet,
a hope came.

Prayers were sent.

My mind was so resistant.
I wanted to distant.




I want you to come.
to another dream of mine.
I want you to come.
bring me cognac and wine.

Let us settle,
forget the world,
that is in battle.


Me,
Goe, Nov 17

Sunday, April 30, 2017

Bourgeoisie and Education

This paper will explore the sight of bourgeois society in the Western European from their educational aspect. To begin the discussion, this article will first briefly explain the history of bourgeois and how they were divided into several levels of classes. The second part of this discussion will engage with education as the value in bourgeois society. The last part will explore more the comparison of the social classes from the same context.
The Origin
Bourgeois is a special term in politic and socioeconomic context defining one specific class status in a society. It was first coined during the eleventh century in France and originated from a Southwestern medieval town in France, Bourgs. The people of Bourgs, at that time, were allowed to be free and liberated from the feudal jurisdiction. In the later periods, the idea of bourgeois had elaborated with the development of politic and economic situation. Its meaning had dedicated to a society that could be able to possess independent means and belonged to the middle position between the clergy or nobility and the peasant.
The seventeenth century was a period at which the term ‘Bourgeois’ started to be widely used in Western Europe. A century later, as described in Jerrold Seigel’s book, Modernity and Bourgeois Life: Society, Politics, and Culture in England, France, and Germany since 1750, the ‘Bourgeois’ was acknowledged during the great French Revolution in 1789 as the main motivation of the revolution. In the eightieth and ninetieth century, the gap between the rich and the poor became wider and the less elite society was split into two different types: the landlord and the worker. To balance and to acknowledge such gap, the Englishman, Lord Brougham, in his speech, mentioned that the middle class could actually ‘connect the upper and lower class.’ This was the cornerstone in which the bourgeois class began to flourish during the period. Continued in the contemporary era, the term bourgeois is associated with Marxism. From the point of the economic term, the classic Bourgeois is linked to ‘capitalist’ by considering their effort to collect their belonging: ‘either the possessor of capital, or the receiver of an income de­rived from such a source, or a profit-making entrepreneur, or all of these things’.
Basically, there are some chief elements to determine the identity of bourgeois through the context of socioeconomic and politic. In socioeconomic context, the bourgeois identity could be identified by observing their lifestyle, possession of property, as well as their occupation, and through the politic context, as the bourgeois identity could be observed by looking at their roles in society. 
The status of bourgeois according to an eightieth-century observer, Yves Besnard, can be classified through their occupation. He pointed out to a certain occupation that strongly associated to bourgeois class. Bourgeois could be the one who earned money from the profit of their property. Though it is still debatable because of the dividing line of the lower middle class in the bourgeois hierarchy is not clear enough. Some contemporary historians had tried to created other groupings of the bourgeois occupation in the seventieth to eightieth century. To be considered as a bourgeois, one had to own a real estate or property, own a business or have a career as a financial administrator at official organizations. 
Meanwhile, some other had created another classification through the bourgeoisie occupations. The highest level of bourgeois was those classified as the noblesse de robe or those who worked as the administrator or judicial. The second level from the bourgeois group came from the lower clergy, as there would not be any mobility from lower to a higher level of clerical so they were classified as the professional bourgeoisie. The last group was made up of the intellectuals. However, since intellectuals at that time were comprised by both roturier and nobles, it was quite difficult to present the intellectuals as the nobles. The other group comes from the property and business owners. The business could be the wholesale merchants, industrial business, or commerce. Categorizing the occupation does not mean to seal the people into certain class, but it is mere to identify the range of their activity and to what level their occupation will correspond to. Normally, the people will move from one type to another according to their situation and opportunity.
Bourgeois and Education
In bourgeois society, not only occupation and possession of wealth, one of the essential parts in determining the group level was the intellectuality. The great concern of education came particularly from the bourgeois class, especially from the upper bourgeois. They would support themselves with education if it was financially affordable. Aiming to have a social improvement, a bourgeois family would spend their money to educate their children and in the future through education, it would allow them to receive the nobility or lift up the class.
To begin the discussion, it is important to be clear about the formal education system during the period of the eightieth and ninetieth century. Some division of formal education happened to almost the whole class of society. In the clergy, for instance, formal education was taken over by the Church and it was separated from the state system. Or, a majority of the West European countries at that time separated the pupils based on their society class. That way, the society could preserve the structure of their society.
It was the bourgeois that the great appreciation and valuation towards education came from. It was because the level of education might relate to economic activities as the main source of their wealth. They believed that education could be the commodity to economic growth and the development of the middle-class group. It was also because the bourgeois was convinced that the appreciation of the level of knowledge and skill was valuable in regard to the growing number of profession demand. The formal education was expected to nurture the technical skills and become the main force of economy development. Education was also the response of economic, demographic, and social changes.
By the mid of the ninetieth century, the growing number of students in some education institutions were recorded in most West European countries. The main aim of the primary school was not only to teach the students about the literacy, but also the social values. A century before that, the education trend was not only on the formal academic but also in the military. To open an opportunity in receiving social mobility to the nobility, there was a special education for the poor nobleman that allow them to compete with the bourgeois.
Having a career as an intellectual was one of a new trend during the eightieth century. The feeling that enlightenment was needed for the society came from some the bourgeois. They were also expected to bring a bigger change into the society and became the moral leaders. Some great intellectuals had become great examples of the class mobility, such as the Rousseau who was from the family of the moyenne or middle-class, Marmontel who started to pursue his education in the college and later became ‘a respectable second rate intellectual’, dan Voltaire who were from the lowest rank of French nobility.
Social Classes Comparison 
Education, basically, was perceived as an important aspect of the middle and upper class during the era. However, the different of education for all social classes might be seen as it was divided into several parts. The most obvious different was the education institution. The noble class and the lower class students might not be able to study in the same school. Majorly, the highest class would receive education at some private schools. While for the working class, during the ninetieth century, although there were no tuition fee for the primary school for the poor or working class family in the Great Britain in particular, education was a new form of family burden, economically, since they need to provide school equipment such uniforms, pens, books, and so on. Thus, instead of pursuing better education until reaching secondary education, at least, which was considered as the luxury thing, the children from the working class were demanded to provide their own money by working in the early age. Some of them began to work at the age of twelve and some other might be even younger as they leave the school.
In contrary, the higher class of the society tend to be educated until reaching the highest level as they could. Different from the boys, education for girls in upper class was not as important as education for boys as they had to marry after turning mature. But, it happened slightly different in 1848. The growing number of intelligent women was initiated by the establishment of Queen’s college in London and later followed other public schools for girls.
Conclusion
During the seventieth to ninetieth century, the division of society class was obvious in the majority of European countries. Basically, there were three classes, the upper class consisted of the nobles and aristocrats, the middle class or bourgeois consisted of landowners and intellectuals, and lower class or working class consisted of the labor and the poor.
One of social value that grew within the bourgeois society was the devotion to education. Motivated by promising economic activities, the bourgeois would spend their wealth to fund the study for their children. They were conceived that education will allow them to experience the society mobility. 
Comparing the way bourgeois valued education, especially formal education, to other classes was by observing how the family support their children to attend the school. In bourgeois society, a family would spend their money to go to school, meanwhile, in an elite family, education for girls was not important as they would marry soon after they reached their maturity. To lower or working class, education was not important because the children would be much useful if they worked and earned money for the family.

Bibliography
Books:
Barber, Elinor G. The Bourgeoisie in 18th Century France.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955. Moretti, Franco. The Bourgeois: Between History and Literature. Brooklyn, NY: Verso, 2013.
Jon Hobsbawm, Eric. The age of Capital: 1848-1875, London: Abacus, 1997.
Meacham, Standish. A Life Apart: The English Working Class 1890-1914, London: Thames and Hudson. 1977. 
Pilbeam, Pamela M., The Middle Classes in Europe 1789-1914: France, Germany, Italy, and Russia. London: Macmillan Education.1990
Seigel, Jerrold E. Modernity and Bourgeois Life: Society, Politics, and Culture in England, France, and Germany since 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Online article:

Picard, Liza. “Education in Victorian Britain” British Library. Accessed on January 7, 2017 https://www.bl.uk/victorian-britain/articles/education-in-victorian-britain 

Sunday, March 19, 2017

New blog?

I've been so boring with my blog layout lately and trying to develop one new fancy and cutting-edge blog by wix.

VISIT MY NEW BLOG! though there's nothing in it, but I'm gonna fill it up with something trashy (haha) and maybe something informative and useful for the human race :p

Cheers!

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Learning Nederlandse Taal

Halo,
Ik ben Annissa!
Aangenaam.

I've settled in the Netherlands. What a lovely country it is for sure (but fuck the wind!). I made friends, both from my classes and from my other class. What classes do I mean? So, I have a normal class (classes included in my program) and Dutch Class. 

Why do you learn Dutch? Is it gonna be worldwide used?
Well, I'd say No. The vast majority of Dutch people themselves are very good with their English. For instance, I am a frequent visitor of the Fresh Market, every week. I have never once used Dutch during my communication with the sellers or the other buyers. Why? Because they speak English very well. So, why would I need that, right? In another occasion, I have tried to speak basic conversation in Dutch, such as: Goedemorgen. Een kopje thee, alsjeblieft (Good Morning. A cup of tea, please). If you started with this, then you expect something in Dutch as the return, don't you? But, haha (I sometimes laugh to myself if this happens) they don't! They'll be happy to have a conversation in English with you. Presumably, I have something written in my face telling people not to speak other languages with me but English. OR my Dutch sounds terrible so they just don't want to waste more time with me struggling with my language. 

But, being able to at least make a simple conversation in Dutch would give me another plus score. And, unlike other European languages that have weird sounds, like French's /R/ or Czech's /R/ which is unbelievably difficult to pronounce, Dutch tends to be pretty easy. Especially if you are an Indonesian and you speak Engish. You obviously could skip basic classes (but you need to adapt with the spellings).

So, could you please teach me some basic or show me Dutch in brief?
Basically, the writing is like when you want to type something in English but you fall asleep on your keyboard. It appears like you type all the letters and voila! Or, if you understand Indonesian, it would be more like if you want to write down something in English but using the Indonesian spelling. For example: in de trein (in the train). 

Plus, if you are an Indonesian, you will be helped a lot by some similar words, like: gratis (free), handook (towel), rok (skirt), rawit (chili paper), or sereh (lemon grass) (though I'm not sure if the word sereh really comes from the Dutch). Oh, one favorite word that I love the most and also being used in Indonesia: trakteer!!!! (who doesn't love free food?!)

It's also not too complicated when it comes to the grammar (perhaps. so far). The conjugation is kinda easy to be processed in my brain, perhaps the basic of Deutsch, French, and Spanish helped me with this. In fact, Dutch has less variation of conjugation, unlike Slovakian root languages. So for example: mijn huis is in Groningen (my house is in Groningen). Simple, right?

But you really need to be aware of the letter /g/. It's like French r, but it's g. Get it? To me, it sounds like if you want to clean your throat. Another thing is it might have similar pronunciation with German. So if you have basic in German, it'll help you even a lot more, for sure. 

I'm gonna post some of the pictures, in the upcoming opportunity (if I'm not lazy, or if I don't forget to capture some) Teeeeheee!


Sunday, February 19, 2017

Voyager à Paris

Bonjour!

Winter break has just passed, I have to start a new semester. Excited, yet I have some concerns on how to live my new life in Netherlands. Will I have friends as I do before? Will I study well? Will I manage my time better? Those questions are lingering in my mind.

Now, I'm not going to talk any of my concerns, nor the US-Russian relations in Trump's years, nor Trump-Netanyahu-Islam love-hate relation. Too heavy, too pessimistic, too complicated.

As I read my friend's new posting about her journey to Singapore, it gave me such inspiration to write again (got hundreds of unfinished draft, actually). But now, mine is a little fancier. I'm gonna share my short trip to Paris! A metropolis in France.

This actually was my first time traveling to the far away country. After passing by in Netherlands, in which I felt like home since there are gazillions of Indonesian I could meet everywhere on the street, I was excited to finally beat my fear - to travel to Paris!

It was not my biggest dream, though, to travel to Paris. What I had in my mind was Paris might be the place where I could experience the hate-speech (because I wore hijab??). I expected to see or be in any Islamophobia cases. BUT, it did not happen. Paris is just a very Muslim-friendly city.

One day, I walked in one of the big roads which I couldn't remember the name, and I felt so 'safe'. A group of Muslim girls passed me and we smiled and we greeted each other. There were not such things as Islamophobia I found.

I had a fun time visiting Louvree Museum. With 15 Euros, you could see all beautiful things: scriptures, paintings, arts, and much more.


Look how I couldn't be apart with this friend! Tolak Angin. Paris was a bitch at that time: wind, cold, no heater. What a good time I had, huh? So obviously, I got cold and tired and homeless. Good God, I had this herbal multivitamin (or whatever that was, but it helped me a lot).


What really attracted me was Monalisa's picture. Everybody wanted to be with her, apparently. Long line to just take a picture of Monalisa. And look at the buffer zone in front of the painting and to the line, Unbelievable! 


If it was not for my mother, I might not ever in my whole life take a picture with Eifel tower!

What I loved the most from this city was Shakespeare and Co! I couldn't love more! Shakespeare and Co is a book store. A sizeable amount of book collection, unique architecture inside, wonderful place to spend all your money at. If I could just stay there for the rest of my visit, it would be one of my biggest achievement!


After spending some times in Paris, I departed to Avignon, a beautiful classic small city in the Southeast France. Here are some pictures from wonderful Avignon:



Last but not least, before I went back to Netherlands, I paid a visit to UNESCO office. Nope, I didn't manage to get in and see what's inside, just a passing by haha!



Overall, I did enjoy my trip. A lot. Remember, if you are planning to visit Paris or you are in Paris when you read this, watch your purses and other belongings. Pickpockets are everywhere. I lost my watch and my eyeglasses :(
*haha! That's exaggerated. What happened was I forgot where I put those and lost that by my own mistake. 

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Enlightenment and Education

Abstract
Education develops through time. It once was created as guidance to pass through harsh primitive life. As time goes by, this guidance was developed and taught to all of their descendants. Over times, education changes its function as a tool that not only functioned to survive but also to bring morality and human enlightenment. 
Discussion in this paper will engage with enlightenment thinkers ideas such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant on the education in their time. It will compare how they perceive the basic idea of ideal education. Locke, for instance, focuses more on the mental development and character building of children, while Rousseau focuses on human nature. The emphasize on moral education then was come out in Immanuel Kant’s idea of the important part of educating children.
Introduction
Enlightenment in general means to illuminate or to perceive something. This term is also used to signify a period of history, during the early seventieth century until the eightieth century, which is characterized by the raising of critical thinking towards sciences and the stimulation of revolution ideas. During the age of enlightenment, the criticism is one of tool to excavate the people freedom of being a civil society.
Through a slow transition, this new phase had born influential thinkers who started the changes. One of the early enlightenment thinkers was Newton who initiated the propagation of knowledge in the sixteenth century. The following major thinkers were then inspired by his ideas, such as John Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and much more. Majorly, these thinkers criticized the governmental or monarch systems that they believed do not satisfy the needs of people. Some thinkers also stimulated people to shift from their conventional culture to more rational and modern ones. 
The idea of enlightenment is often linked with education. Education was also believed as a tool to eliminate the conflict in society. Through that, it would allow the society to build the stronger idea of freedom and morality. Lack of attention in the education system, especially the institution, during late middle ages was seen by the inequality. Only those who were from high-class young men would be taught about lay and rationalistic while the rest of people would be taught about religion which was managed by the churches.
The pioneer thinkers on education during the enlightenment era are John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant. Emphasizing on different ideas of education, these three philosophers had successfully influenced the development of epistemology. John Locke, English physician, philosopher, and polymath was born in Wrington, Somerset, England on 29 August 1632. He was raised in a discipline and loving puritan family. As a brilliant student, in 1647, young Locke was awarded a scholarship by the King and elected for a Studentship in Christ Church in Oxford. After finishing his medical study in Oxford, he continued to learn philosophy. His idea of education was elaborated in his book, Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693). His view on children development was first inspired by his elite friend, Clarke, in 1684 who found some troublesome in behaving his son. As he consulted his stories to Locke, there were some suggestions of the idea for education triggered by the problems of misbehaving of Clarke’s son. He also targeted his methods of parenting and education to aristocrats ways in raising their children during that age.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland, on 28 June 1712. He was raised in the strong Calvinist background and encouraged to read by his father. Raised in Geneva, in his 20’s, he managed to move to Paris and married his wife. His most influential work about education is Èmile (1762). This book elaborates some suggestion on dealing with children education during his period. The half part of the book consists of the story of  Èmile, a fictional young man that Rousseau used as a model of education development. He divided the book into five chapters which consist of the elaborative discussion of development stages. 
Immanuel Kant was born in Konigsberg, Prussia (now it is Kaliningrad, Russia), on April 22, 1724. As a polymath and ambivalent thinkers, Kant published several criticisms mostly on the normative aspects and his remarkable work on education is Kant on Education (1803). Throughout his explanation, the idea of education, as he emphasized, should be based on moral development. This paper will be divided into two parts where the first part will compare the idea of children development. The following part will expose their different perspectives on the ideal method of education. 
Developmental Education
The concept of education coined by people in middle ages would obviously different from people nowadays. The disparity of gender role, for instance, was one of the most important aspects on who are allowed to learn and train. During the enlightenment years, these three influential thinkers had successfully created a new perspective on proper education method which should be applied to their children.
Locke’s main idea of education was character building and learning through experiences. He emphasized the term of Tabula Rasa which means that all human comes with a blank mind and their mind has great power to apply the principles. Slightly different from Locke, Rousseau’s main idea on education highlights on natural education. Parents or education have to understand the nature of development and its phases. In mid eightieth century, Kant came out with the idea that education should be based to moral. Good education, both practical and physical education, should refer and support to moral development.
Each thinker has their own perspective on the development of children. Locke’s Tabula Rasa defines that human born without carrying any knowledge. This idea was supported in Rousseau perspective of newborn human: “… we are born totally unprovided, we need aid; we are born stupid, we need judgment.” Rousseau idea was developed by the explanation of how the infant and early age childhood should be educated. As they will grow their physical nature, children should have freedom in their physical development which will help them to grow their physical sense. The support of the idea also came from Kant who in his book mentioned that to humanize a man it should be through education.
The ideas of childhood development are shown in their books. As Locke and Rousseau agreed that education should be cultivated in their early age, as that is the crucial part and it will determine the future of children. Locke’s idea of education majorly highlighted the phase childhood education in his book: how body development and health should be treated, character building, and academic curriculum. It is supported by Rousseau’s idea of his description of the discipline habits for children. He drew the similarity between man and plants. Both man and plant should have their freedom to grow, but if the growing process is neglected without being educated or shaped, it will grow into unwanted direction. This concept is also supported by Kant in his perception about education. He described that education will form man through four aspects of education: discipline, culture, discretion, and moral training.  
The concept of liberty in children development, according to Locke, is to give children their freedom of mind. This freedom means that they are free to show their actions and let them enjoy their childhood:“liberty alone which gives the true relish and delight to their ordinary play-games” However, the presence of parents or educator in this liberty should be obvious. They are demanded to assess and guide their children.This idea is similar to Rousseau’s concept of liberty in his first chapter. He mentioned that children need to use their physical senses to encounter the nature of their life. Another similar idea also comes from Kant, mentioning that child should be bestowed with the liberty. However, the liberty should be taught to respect other people’s freedom.
Education Methods
Beside the development of children that had become the most important part in the idea of education, method of delivering lessons and values also become the spotlight in the works about education. Parents, described as the most important actors in this process, have several difficult tasks. Some other concerns about education methods come from the content of the teaching itself. 
Locke argued that parents presence in children’s daily lives will allow them to determine good and bad habits or what to do and to avoid. The role of parents as a role model since children will imitate what parents do. He also emphasized the nurture of children through academic aspect. As a polymath, Locke might have experienced some discontents with the learning system in formal education: numerous of unnecessary disciplines, for instance. This was what make him suggesting some advice on curriculum. He argued that reading should be taught as when the children were able to talk while other lessons such as writing, languages, and arithmetic could be taught in advanced ages. 
Some advice on moral education is emphasized in the characters building. Locke saw that to grow moral values or good habits, parents are allowed to use three methods: punishment, reward, and imitation. Punishment might be given to children with correct proportion, the burden of punishment depends on the mistakes. The reward is only given to children with esteem, thus it will make a habit for them to achieve the reward. By imitating their parents, children will create memories which will stick to them until they are mature.
There are three sources of education according to Rousseau: nature, man, and things. This might mean that human should be educated from nature or human habit. In the phase of growing, children should be free to learn. There should be no verbal lessons because children will receive their own lesson through experiences. Therefore, Rousseau in his further explanation described that children should use their senses to find out their own lesson. Unlike Locke who emphasized the imitating method for teaching, Rousseau comes out with the idea of ‘negative education’. This method of education aims to create wise man. Without giving any verbal lesson, the children will determine by themselves their right and left hand.
Similar to Locke, method suggested by Kant to enhance the thinking and behaving process could be through physical education and practical education. Physical education is to look after the health and tending, while practical education or moral training is to focus on how to teach a man to be someone who is able to maintain and place themselves in the proper place in society. For Kant, education is the process of thinking and development of character, while training did not require thinking process. Kant argues that education requires a good memory and memory should be occupied only by important and useful things. Therefore, novel-reading might be the useless activity for children because it only entertains for such short period of time and it also weakens the memory. 
Bibliography
Aaron, Richard I. John Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955
Baldwin, Bird T., “John Locke’s Contribution to Education,” The Sewanee Review vol.21 no. 2 (1913): 177-187
Clifford-Vaughan, Michalina. “Enlightenment and Education”. The British Journal of Sociology, 2 (1963): 135-143
Harari, Josué V. “Therapeutic Pedagogy: Rousseau's Emile,”  The Johns Hopkins University Press. Vol. 97, No. 4. (1982): 787-809
Kant, Immanuel. Kant on Education. Translated by Annete Churton. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. 1900. http://lf-oll.s3.amazonaws.com/titles/356/0235_Bk.pdf
Kant, Immanuel. The Educational Theory of Immanuel Kant. Edited by Edward Franklin Buchner. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. 1904
 Locke, John. Some Thoughts Concerning Education. London: J and R Tonson. 1693. accessed on 13 November 2016, https://archive.org/details/somethoughtsconc00lockuoft
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, or on Education. Translated by Allan Bloom. New York: Basic Book. 1979
Schmidt, James. What Is Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions. California: University of California Press. 1996
---
Wikipedia Contributors, “Jean-Jacque Rousseau” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. accessed on 30 November 2016 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Jacques_Rousseau#Adulthood

Biography.com Editors, “Immanuel Kant Biography” The Biography.com website. accessed on 30 November 2016 http://www.biography.com/people/immanuel-kant-9360144#synopsis

Friday, December 4, 2015

Writing Habit

Hello.
It's me.

It is devistating that I could hear Adele's voice all over my head. It won't go! Oh Adele, Please.

The posting today is not about Adele, or her new album. Nope. But it is my  own experience of being so stupid and ignorant.
I received my degree in Literature, a year ago. I am a proud woman at that time. But then, I came to something so funny.


[.... to be continued.....]
[My gojek has come and need to rush before the jam]

Saturday, November 28, 2015

Perusak itu Sebenarnya adalah Anda Sendiri!

Mengagumi bukan berarti menghargai!
Itu adalah pandangan saya terhadap Rakyat Indonesia (well, saya terlalu menggeneralisir), terhadap segelintir oknum di Indonesia lebih tepatnya. Sejujurnya di dalam hati ini (haha!) sudah melabel orang-orang tersebut sebagai PERUSAK. In fact, they are! Mungkin beberapa pandangan bisa saya uraikan terhadap penilaian saya:

1. Musium adalah untuk MATA dan OTAK anda!
Anda sebagai orang Indonesia tentu pernah berkunjung ke Musium, walaupun itu hanya 1 kali di dalam kehidupan Anda, itupun terhitung pernah. Jika anda berkesempatan mengunjungi musium di luar negeri sana, (ga usah jauh-jauh, kita melihat ke negara kecil di Barat Laut Indonesia, Singapura) mohon anda untuk tidak hanya mempelajari esensi dan nilai yang ada di dalam musium tersebut namun juga observasi dan amati etika dan tabiat para pengunjungnya. Anda dapat jelas membandingkan perbedaannya - some say, "Jangan beda-bedain Indonesia sama negara maju lah" or "Ga usah sok internasional deh, dengan membeda-bedakan Indonesia dengan negara lain. Cintai lah Indonesia" or many others. 
Pengunjung musium di negara yang tadi saya sebutkan itu, sangat mengerti etika dalam wisata musium. Mereka paham benar bahwa barang-barang yang ada di dalam musium itu hanya untuk dilihat dan dipelajari karena mungkin saja barang tersebut tidak ternilai harganya dan mereka sadar bahwa barang tersebut adalah warisan nenek moyang mereka or in other word, barang tersebut diwariskan untuk rakyat di negerinya bukan untuk satu golongan tertentu -, tidak untuk disentuh kecuali barang-barang yang telah diduplikasi dan simplified. 
Kita kembali lagi ke Indonesia tercinta. Baru-baru ini saya mengunjungi Museum Nasional di Jakarta. Tiket masuk yang terjangkau bagi seluruh kalangan, (hanya Rp 5.000 untuk turis domestik dan Rp 10.000 for International tourist) mungkin belum menjadi daya tarik warga sekitar untuk mengujungi musium tersebut - mall mungkin lebih menarik :p. Pemandangan yang disuguhkan untuk rute pertama wisata Musium Nasional adalah arca dari koleksi masa Hindu Budha di Indonesia. Beragam batu ukiran dan patung-patung dipamerkan untuk dipelajari. Salah satu arca terbesar yang ada adalah Arca Adityawarman.
Arca AdityawarmanCopyright Wikipedia
Jika kita bisa lihat bersama, di bagian bawah patung tersebut (lutut ke bawah) sudah mulai menghitam. Ada yang bilang, karena batu yang digunakan untuk memahat patung tersebut adalah batu yang bermineral, maka semakin sering terkena sentuhan tangan manusia, batu akan semakin licin dan berubah warna. KONKLUSINYA: arca tersebut terlalu sering disentuh. 

2. Lukisan pajangan pun adalah untuk MATA dan OTAK anda!
Tidak hanya arca atau patung-patung lainnya. Lukisan pun sebenarnya hanya untuk mata Anda bukan untuk tangan. Karena apa? Karena tangan kita, tangan manusia, sangat ajaib. Tangan kita dapat mengalirkan hangat tubuh dan enzim-enzim yang lama kelamaan dapat merubah bentuk suatu zat tertentu. 
Jika suatu saat kita berkesempatan jalan-jalan ke suatu tempat (bisa jadi itu hotel atau mall) dan ada lukisan yang tidak berkaca dengan tekstur timbul atau teknik pelukisan yang berbeda dari lukisan pada umumnya, pasti akan ada 1 2 3 orang yang penasaran dan ujung-ujungnya memegang permukaan lukisan tersebut. 
It is just a simple thing. Tapi itu adalah bagian dari perusakan karya. Dengan anda menyentuh permukaan tersebut, nilai dari teknik tersebut dapat memudar. Kembali lagi, karena tangan manusia itu sangat ajaib! Bisa berkarya, bisa pula merusak. 

3. Taman Indah adalah Taman Narsis.
Beberapa waktu terakhir ini, banyak sekali taman-taman gratis yang dibangun oleh pemerintah yang dikhususkan untuk warganya agar dapat relaksasi dan menikmati pemandangan. Misal, Taman Bungkul di Surabaya dengan hamparan rumput hijaunya dan dimaniskan oleh bunga-bunga di beberapa sudut taman dirusak oleh warganya sendiri. Crazy isn't it? 

Taman Bungkul by Kaskus
Padahal ongkos pembuatan dan perawatan taman bukanlah angka yang kecil, dan dana tersebut pun berasal dari kantong warganya. Serbasalah memang. Jika kita berhitung, agar ada penghematan perawatan taman, bisa saja taman tersebut dikelola oleh pihak swasta. Tapi pasti akan ada saja kritik dan aksi protes atas keputusan tersebut. Jadi? Boleh lah pemerintah kita galau untuk memfasilitasi warganya dengan taman dan kehijauan, karena warganya tidak sadar bahwa taman tersebut adalah MILIK BERSAMA dan harus SALING MERAWAT

Belum lagi ada fenomena aksi Narsis di Indonesia. Duh, bagaikan wabah virus, hampir setiap orang berlomba-lomba membeli handphone pintar yang dilengkapi kamera canggih, applikasi manipulasi gambar, dan internet. Karena, in case mereka jalan ke suatu taman, camera standby dan langsung upload! Yay, hidup gue ngehits banget gilak. Hal tersebut wajar lah, yang tidak wajar adalah ketika mereka masuk ke taman yang dimana terpampang tulisan "Dilarang menginjak rumput dan tanaman lainnya" atau masuk ke lapangan yang jelas ada pagar penanda "Restricted Area". 

Saya hanya bisa mengelus dada. Mungkinkah ini warisan hasil dijajah bangsa Eropa selama ratusan tahun?

Teman-teman, Mas Mbak Adik Kakak Om Tante, mari kita menjaga apa yang disebut dengan keindahan dengan hanya cukup dengan memanjakan mata. Boleh kok, selfie atau ambil gambar, tapi tidak berarti kita harus merusak apa yang harusnya kita jaga. Budaya seperti itu memang harus direvolusi. 


I ask God, one day

Short poetry from the bottom of despair